Home > Courses > 2P51 Classical and Modern Optics Wave-Particle Duality Sources and Detectors Geometrical Optics and Imaging Reflection and Refraction Index of refraction, optical path length and reduced distance. Laws of reflection and refraction Snell's law and reduced distance. Total Internal Reflection and the critical angle Reflecting Prisms Dispersion of Light by a Prism Wavelength Dependence of index of refraction Derivation of the prism equation Thin Lenses Definition: Vergence Modification of Vergence by refracting surface Definition of the focal points of a surface Sign convention Gauss's formula Types of lenses Determining Location and nature of images Variation of image point with object point ray tracing Real Images Virtual Images lens maker's equation; thin lens equation; newton's lens equation Transverse magnification Transverse magnification by a single surface Axial magnification foreshortening Examples Ex: Simple application of the lens equations Ex: focal length of a plano-convex lens Ex: focal length of a plano-concave lens Ex: Minimum distance between object and real image for convex lens Ex: macro lens on a camera Ex: a magnifying glass Ex: lenses in combination Thick Lenses Determination of principal plane by ray tracing Definition of principal planes Principal planes can reside outside the lens A thick lens is equivalent to two thin lenses separated by distance d Deriving equivalent power equation Change of vergence equation Definition of front and back vertex focal lengths Examples Ex: find the second principal plane Ex: find the principal planes Ex: find the principal planes II Ex: afocal combination Mirrors location, magnification and nature of images formed by plane mirrors mirror images Deviation of reflected ray by multiple reflection corner cube retroreflector location, magnification of images formed by spherical mirrors Aspherical mirrors ` Aberrations monochromatic aberrations spherical aberration ray diagram solutions: high index, gradient index lens, aspherics,bending,doublet coma negative coma positive coma solutions: bending, spaced doublet with central aperture stop astigmatism field curvature distortion chromatic aberration ray diagram solutions: dichromat or achromatic doublet Stops and Pupils two kinds of stops aperture stop limits light reaching image plane What is the aperture stop depends on object position f-number entrance and exit pupils Wave Optics