Condensed Matter Physics II
Instructor: S.K. Bose
Course outline:
Brock Undergraduate Calendar Description:
Energy bands in metals and semiconductors, dynamics of electrons, Fermi surfaces and transport properties of solids, magnetism, screening in electron gas, optical properties.
Prerequisite(s): PHYS 4P70.
Course goal:
The goal of this course is to provide a working knowledge of the concepts and tools of modern condensed matter physics to students who have been exposed to ideas from introductory solid state physics, quantum mechanics, and statistical physics. The course starts with an in depth discussion of the electronic structure of crystalline solids, and a brief discussion of how this gets modified for noncrystalline systems such as amorphous solids and liquids. This is followed by a discussion of how the solids, based on their electronic structure, can be classified as metals, insulators and semiconductors. Next, the discussion moves on to demonstrating how the knowledge of electronic structure of solids leads to an understanding of their various physical properties: in partcicular, their transport, magnetic, optical and superconducting properties. At the end of the course, students will be able to solve intermediate to advanced level problems involving these concepts and begin to understand how physicists use them to study solids, build devices, tailor properties of materials, design new materials and study their emergent properties.
Textbook:

There is no required textbook for the course. The main source of information will be the lecture notes. The library has many textbooks on this subject and students can choose any book they find suitable. Some suggested books are:

  • Solid State Physics by N.W. Ashcroft and N.D. Mermin
  • Introduction to Solid State Physics by C. Kittel
  • Elementary Solid State Physics by M Ali Omar, Addison-Wesley Longman: Reading, 1993 ( Revised Edition).
  • Condensed Matter Physics by Michael P. Marder
  • Solid-State Physics by Harald Ibach and Hans Lueth, Springer-Verlag
  • Physics of Condensed Matter by Prasanta K. Misra

Marking scheme:

assignments (30%), 2 midterm tests: midterm 1- 15%), midterm 2- 20% final exam (35%)

40% minimum grade required in the final exam to pass the course

Late assignments will not be accepted unless approved by the instructor
Tuesday lecture time:
Jan. 22 : 3:30-5:00 p.m.
Jan. 29 : 3:10-4:40 p.m.
Feb. 5 : 2:00-3:30 p.m.
Feb. 12 : 3:30-5:00 p.m.
Feb. 26 : 3:30-4:40 p.m.
March 5: 3:10-4:40 p.m.
March 12 3:10-4:40 p.m.
March 19 3:10-4:40 p.m.
March 26 3:30-5:00 p.m.
April 2 3:10-4:40 p.m.
April 9 No class
Final Exam date, time, place:
PHYS 4P71 and 5P70 Final exam (bring a calculator)

Midterm dates:

Saturday February 9, 10:00 a.m. - 12:00 noon in room MC B203

Saturday March 23, 10:00 a.m. - 12:00 noon in room MC B203



Course aids:
Periodic Table -1
Periodic Table -2

Crystal Structures:
2-D Lattice Types
bcc-fcc-simple hexagonal lattices
bcc-fcc-simple hexagonal lattices
Some characteristics of cubic lattices
Hexagonal close-packed structure-1
Hexagonal close-packed structure-2
Hexagonal close-packed structure-3
Hexagonal close-packed structure-4
a possible choice primitive basis vectors for the HCP structure
FCT-BCT equivalence
Diamond Structure (from Kittel)
NaCl and CsCl structures

Reciprocal space structure:
Wigner Seitz cell
BZ for square and cubic lattices
BZ for fcc and bcc lattices
Theorem needed for the plane wave expansion of periodic functions in real or reciprocal space

Band structure:
Kronig-Penney Model(from Kittel)
Energy Bands and Gaps: metals, semimetals, semiconductors, insulators
Extended, reduced and periodic zone schemes (from Ashcroft and Mermin)
Empty Lattice (free electron) bands: simple cubic
Empty Lattice (free electron) bands: bcc
Assignment 3, Problem 5, help
Free-electron and Tight-binding bands:
Free electron bands for fcc Ca, compared with more accurately calculation (from Ashcroft and Mermin)
Free electron bands for bcc Na, compared with more accurately calculation (from Ashcroft and Mermin)
Energy bands in Germanium, free and LCAO bands compared with more accurate calculation (Fig. 3.8-Electronic Structure and the Properties of Solids, Wlater A. Harriosn 1989)
Energy bands and DOS for fcc Cu
Tight s-bands for a square lattice
sample problem-1
Semiconductors:
Energy gaps in semiconductors
Energy bands of Si and Ge
Electrons and holes
visualizing electron and hole motion
visualizing change of electron wave vector in an E-field
carrier concentration:T-dependence
mobility
Problem:extrinsic conductivity
T-dependence of conductivity
Fermi Surface:
Fermi Surface-1
Fermi Surface-2
Fermi Surface-3
Fermi Surface:Cu, Ag, Au
Fermi Surface of Copper in periodic zone scheme
Fermi Surface: important points to remember
Electron velocity at ZB for a linear lattice
Fermi Surface: notes
Fermi Surface of MgB2:
Fermi Surface of MgB2 (superconducting material)
Fermi Surface of MgB2 in relation to its band structure
Electron motion in B-field:
Electron motion in B-field
Explaining de Haas-van Alphen effect (from Kittel)

Magnetism:
Hund's Rules and Term Symbols (Ashcroft and Mermin)
Effective magneton numbers: Iron Group (Kittel)
Effective magneton numbers: Lanthanide Group (Kittel)
Pauli spin paramagnetism
Exchange interaction
Heisenberg Model
Exchange interaction in some ferromagnetic 3d metals
Stoner Model of Band Magnetism
Heisenberg Model-Antiferromagnetic
Direct, Super and Indirect exchange
Spin waves in a ferromagnet
Course Summary