Jews were traders and landowners. A rich landowner Yakov Il'inich collected 23000 polish gilders (?) in three years in Dvinsk, Polotsk and Vitebsk, and traded goods in many towns1.11. Another well-known trader in Vitebsk, Matitiahu ben Girshon (Gershanovich), on June 23, 1605, paid the Vitebsk Collection Chamber for 400 rabbit pelts and 20 cow and horse skins two stones (1 stone = 32 pounds) of honey and three stones of oats, which he brought on a ship from Velizh. There is also a mention of Jewish landowner Yehuda ben Yakov (Yakubovich)1.12.
The local seims, nobles, and city administrators opposed the development of the Jewish trade whenever they could, but often relented if it was in their self-interest. By 1730, the Jews provided most of the exports and trade with Riga and Königsberg. In 1772, Itzhak ben Yehuda-Leib Blokh sent a bill to the Collection Chamber for 32 items, including 3,387 yards of various textiles, some with gold threads, at 20 rubles per yard1.13. A trader from Königsberg, Khaim ben Leib Fridlender, reported about trade relationships that involved credit (!), agent representation, etc1.14.
Jewish trades people could practice, but could not join the christian guilds.