Simulated Annealing

Detailed Description

Simulated annealing is a generic probabilistic algorithm for global optimization of a function in a large search space. In this case, we are optimizing the Chi squared measure of the fit for a given set of parameters. The search space is the space of possible parameter values. The simulated annealing routine here is implemented using the GNU Scientific Library. Please refer to the Wikipedia article on simulated annealing for more information. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simulated_annealing)

When using this technique, it can be useful to direct the stdout output to be saved in a file. It will contain the system energy and parameter values over the course of the simulation, which can be analyzed later.

Functions

int siman_main (void *void_gsl_fit_struct)
The main function for performing simulated annealing.
double siman_energy (void *void_gsl_fit_struct)
A routine which calculates .
void siman_step (const gsl_rng *rng, void *void_gsl_fit_struct, double step_size)
Step the paramters by a small, random amount.
void siman_copy (void *source, void *dest)
Copies one gsl_fit into another.
void * siman_construct (void *void_gsl_fit_struct)
Creates a clone of a gsl_fit.
void siman_destroy (void *void_gsl_fit_struct)
Frees a gsl_fit.
double siman_metric (void *void_gsl_fit_struct1, void *void_gsl_fit_struct2)
void siman_print (void *void_gsl_fit_struct)
Print out the current state of the solution.

Function Documentation

 int siman_main ( void * void_gsl_fit_struct )

Parameters:
 void_gsl_fit_struct A void pointer, expected to be a gsl_fit.
Returns:
GSL error code.
The method minimizes , with respect to a set of parameters . The function is given by,

There are several parameters here that really should be configurable, but currently are not, such as the number of trial steps, and most importantly, the step size.

The initial temperature is set to be two times initial energy, which is just evaluated with the initial parameters. The final temperature is times smaller. This seems to work well when the Boltzmann constant is set to 1.

As in the other fitting methods, the system configuration is set to be the gsl_fit struct, so that the data is totally accessible. The parameters are overwritten with this technique, however, since the gsl_fit struct is used as workspace.

The difficulty is choosing the best step size, since there is only one that must be shared among all the variables.

Definition at line 12 of file gsl_siman.c.

00013 {
00014   double              st, ft;
00015   gsl_rng            *rng;
00016   gsl_siman_params_t  params;
00017   gsl_fit            *gft;
00018
00019   gft = (gsl_fit *)void_gsl_fit_struct;
00020
00021   rng = gsl_rng_alloc(gsl_rng_taus2);
00022   gsl_rng_set(rng, time(NULL));
00023
00024   /* starting and final temperatures */
00025   st = 2.0 * siman_energy(void_gsl_fit_struct);
00026   ft = st / 1.0e6;
00027
00028   /*
00029   **  The number of steps in temperature, n_T, is given by
00030   **  n_T = ln(st/ft)/ln(mu_t)
00031   **
00032   **  The total number of trials, N, is given by
00033   **  N=n_T*iters_fixed_T
00034   */
00035
00036   params.iters_fixed_T = 500;
00037   params.k             =   1.0;
00038   params.t_initial     =   st;
00039   params.t_min         =   ft;
00040   params.mu_t          =   1.01;
00041   params.step_size     =   0.01;
00042
00043   fprintf(stderr, "Starting %d simulated annealing steps.\n\n",
00044           (int)floor(log(st/ft)/log(params.mu_t)));
00045
00046   gsl_siman_solve(rng, void_gsl_fit_struct, \
00047                   siman_energy,    \
00048                   siman_step,      \
00049                   siman_metric,    \
00050                   siman_print,     \
00051                   siman_copy,      \
00052                   siman_construct, \
00053                   siman_destroy,   \
00054                   0, params);
00055
00056
00057   gft->chis = siman_energy(void_gsl_fit_struct);
00058
00059   gsl_rng_free(rng);
00060
00061   return GSL_SUCCESS;
00062 }


 double siman_energy ( void * void_gsl_fit_struct )

Parameters:
 void_gsl_fit_struct A void pointer, expected to be a gsl_fit.
Returns:
The current energy of the system, as .
This routine calculates based on the parameters in gfc->para.par. Should be functionally identical with mdmin_chisq.

Definition at line 66 of file gsl_siman.c.

00067 {
00068   int i, j, k;
00069   double tmp;
00070   double residual = 0.0;
00071   int    numdata;
00072   gsl_fit  *gft;
00073
00074   gft = (gsl_fit *)void_gsl_fit_struct;
00075
00076   /*
00077   ** Loop over the data sets with index k.
00078   */
00079   numdata = 0;
00080   for (k=0; k<gft->numd; k++)
00081   {
00082     /*
00083     ** Loop over the data points with index i
00084     */
00085     for (i=0; i<gft->data[k].num; i++)
00086     {
00087       /*
00088       **   Loop over the functions with index j
00089       */
00090       tmp = 0.0;
00091       for (j=0; j<gft->numf; j++)
00092       {
00093         if (gft->type == MULTIPLE)
00094         {
00095           tmp += gft->func[j].fun_m(gft->data[k].xpt[i], \
00096                                     gft->para.par + gft->func[j].idx, \
00097                                     k, j);
00098         }
00099         else
00100         {
00101           tmp += gft->func[j].fun_s(gft->data[k].xpt[i], \
00102                                     gft->para.par + gft->func[j].idx);
00103         }
00104       }
00105       tmp = (tmp - gft->data[k].ypt[i]) / gft->data[k].sig[i];
00106       residual += tmp * tmp;
00107       numdata++;
00108     }
00109   }
00110   tmp =  residual / (numdata - gft->para.num);
00111   return tmp;
00112 }


 void siman_step ( const gsl_rng * rng, void * void_gsl_fit_struct, double step_size )

Parameters:
 rng A GSL random number generator void_gsl_fit_struct A void pointer, expected to be a gsl_fit. step_size The random stepsize.
Returns:
The current energy of the system, as .
This routine changes all of the parameters by a small, random amount. The random number generator was set up in the function siman_main, and passed into this function as rng. The parameters are altered by a random value chosen in the interval , where is the step size.

Definition at line 116 of file gsl_siman.c.

00117 {
00118   gsl_fit *gft;
00119   int i;
00120   double s;
00121
00122   gft = (gsl_fit *)void_gsl_fit_struct;
00123
00124   for (i=0; i<gft->para.num; i++)
00125   {
00126     if (gft->para.fix[i] == 0)
00127     {
00128       s = gsl_rng_uniform(rng);
00129       gft->para.par[i] = step_size * (2.0*s-1.0) + gft->para.par[i];
00130     }
00131   }
00132   return;
00133 }


 void siman_copy ( void * source, void * dest )

Parameters:
 source A void pointer, expected to be a gsl_fit dest A void pointer, expected to be a gsl_fit.
Returns:
Void.
This routine copies the data from one gsl_fit into another.

Definition at line 137 of file gsl_siman.c.

00138 {
00139   int i, j;
00140
00141   gsl_fit  *gft_old, *gft_new;
00142
00143   gft_old = (gsl_fit *)source;
00144   gft_new = (gsl_fit *)dest;
00145
00146   gft_new->numd = gft_old->numd;
00147   for (i=0; i<gft_old->numd; i++)
00148   {
00149     gft_new->data[i].idx = gft_old->data[i].idx;
00150     gft_new->data[i].num = gft_old->data[i].num;
00151     for (j=0; j<gft_old->data[i].num; j++)
00152     {
00153       gft_new->data[i].xpt[j] = gft_old->data[i].xpt[j];
00154       gft_new->data[i].ypt[j] = gft_old->data[i].ypt[j];
00155       gft_new->data[i].sig[j] = gft_old->data[i].sig[j];
00156     }
00157   }
00158
00159   gft_new->para.num = gft_old->para.num;
00160   for (i=0; i<gft_old->para.num; i++)
00161   {
00162     gft_new->para.par[i] = gft_old->para.par[i];
00163     gft_new->para.fix[i] = gft_old->para.fix[i];
00164     gft_new->para.err[i] = gft_old->para.err[i];
00165     gft_new->para.tmp[i] = gft_old->para.tmp[i];
00166   }
00167   gft_new->para.idx = gft_old->para.idx;
00168
00169   gft_new->numf = gft_old->numf;
00170   for (i=0; i<gft_old->numf; i++)
00171   {
00172     gft_new->func[i].idx = gft_old->func[i].idx;
00173     gft_new->func[i].num = gft_old->func[i].num;
00174     gft_new->func[i].fun_s = gft_old->func[i].fun_s;
00175     gft_new->func[i].fun_m = gft_old->func[i].fun_m;
00176   }
00177
00178   gft_new->meth.solver_function_call = gft_old->meth.solver_function_call;
00179   gft_new->meth.mdmin_type           = gft_old->meth.mdmin_type;
00180   gft_new->meth.lstsq_type           = gft_old->meth.lstsq_type;
00181
00182   gft_new->chis = gft_old->chis;
00183   gft_new->maxi = gft_old->maxi;
00184   gft_new->indx = gft_old->indx;
00185   gft_new->type = gft_old->type;
00186   return;
00187
00188 }


 void* siman_construct ( void * void_gsl_fit_struct )

Parameters:
 void_gsl_fit_struct A void pointer, expected to be a gsl_fit
Returns:
A gsl_fit, cast as a void pointer.
Creates a new gsl_fit and clones the data from the old.

Definition at line 192 of file gsl_siman.c.

00193 {
00194   int i,j;
00195
00196   gsl_fit  *gft_old, *gft_new;
00197
00198   gft_old = (gsl_fit *)void_gsl_fit_struct;
00199   gft_new = (gsl_fit *)malloc(sizeof(gsl_fit));
00200
00201   gft_new->numd = gft_old->numd;
00202   gft_new->data = (struct _data *)malloc(gft_old->numd * sizeof(struct _data));
00203
00204   for (i=0; i<gft_old->numd; i++)
00205   {
00206     gft_new->data[i].xpt = (double *)malloc(gft_old->data[i].num * \
00207                                             sizeof(double));
00208     gft_new->data[i].ypt = (double *)malloc(gft_old->data[i].num * \
00209                                             sizeof(double));
00210     gft_new->data[i].sig = (double *)malloc(gft_old->data[i].num * \
00211                                             sizeof(double));
00212     gft_new->data[i].idx = gft_old->data[i].idx;
00213     gft_new->data[i].num = gft_old->data[i].num;
00214     for (j=0; j<gft_old->data[i].num; j++)
00215     {
00216       gft_new->data[i].xpt[j] = gft_old->data[i].xpt[j];
00217       gft_new->data[i].ypt[j] = gft_old->data[i].ypt[j];
00218       gft_new->data[i].sig[j] = gft_old->data[i].sig[j];
00219     }
00220   }
00221
00222   gft_new->para.num = gft_old->para.num;
00223   gft_new->para.par = (double *)malloc(gft_old->para.num*sizeof(double));
00224   gft_new->para.fix = (unsigned int *)malloc(gft_old->para.num*\
00225                                              sizeof(unsigned int));
00226   gft_new->para.err = (double *)malloc(gft_old->para.num*sizeof(double));
00227   gft_new->para.tmp = (double *)malloc(gft_old->para.num*sizeof(double));
00228   for (i=0; i<gft_old->para.num; i++)
00229   {
00230     gft_new->para.par[i] = gft_old->para.par[i];
00231     gft_new->para.fix[i] = gft_old->para.fix[i];
00232     gft_new->para.err[i] = gft_old->para.err[i];
00233     gft_new->para.tmp[i] = gft_old->para.tmp[i];
00234   }
00235   gft_new->para.idx = gft_old->para.idx;
00236
00237   gft_new->numf = gft_old->numf;
00238   gft_new->func     = malloc(gft_old->numf*sizeof(struct _func));
00239   for (i=0; i<gft_old->numf; i++)
00240   {
00241     gft_new->func[i].idx = gft_old->func[i].idx;
00242     gft_new->func[i].num = gft_old->func[i].num;
00243     gft_new->func[i].fun_s = gft_old->func[i].fun_s;
00244     gft_new->func[i].fun_m = gft_old->func[i].fun_m;
00245   }
00246
00247   gft_new->meth.solver_function_call = gft_old->meth.solver_function_call;
00248   gft_new->meth.mdmin_type           = gft_old->meth.mdmin_type;
00249   gft_new->meth.lstsq_type           = gft_old->meth.lstsq_type;
00250
00251   gft_new->chis = gft_old->chis;
00252   gft_new->maxi = gft_old->maxi;
00253   gft_new->indx = gft_old->indx;
00254   gft_new->type = gft_old->type;
00255
00256   return (void *)gft_new;
00257 }


 void siman_destroy ( void * void_gsl_fit_struct )

Parameters:
 void_gsl_fit_struct A void pointer, expected to be a gsl_fit
Returns:
Void.
Frees gsl_fit . SHould be functionally identical to gsl_fit_free

Definition at line 261 of file gsl_siman.c.

00262 {
00263   int i;
00264   gsl_fit  *gft;
00265
00266   if (void_gsl_fit_struct == NULL) return;
00267
00268   gft = (gsl_fit *)void_gsl_fit_struct;
00269
00270   for(i=0; i<gft->numd; i++)
00271   {
00272     free(gft->data[i].xpt);
00273     free(gft->data[i].ypt);
00274     free(gft->data[i].sig);
00275   }
00276   if (gft->numd) free(gft->data);
00277
00278   if (gft->para.num)
00279   {
00280     free(gft->para.par);
00281     free(gft->para.fix);
00282     free(gft->para.err);
00283     free(gft->para.tmp);
00284   }
00285
00286   if (gft->numf)
00287   {
00288     free(gft->func);
00289   }
00290
00291   free(void_gsl_fit_struct);
00292
00293   return;
00294 }


 double siman_metric ( void * void_gsl_fit_struct1, void * void_gsl_fit_struct2 )

Parameters:
 void_gsl_fit_struct1 A void pointer, expected to be a gsl_fit void_gsl_fit_struct2 A void pointer, expected to be a gsl_fit
Returns:
The total metric distance between the two paramter spaces.
NOT USED AT ALL. The "distance" between two parameter configurations.

Definition at line 298 of file gsl_siman.c.

00299 {
00300   gsl_fit *gft1;
00301   gsl_fit *gft2;
00302   double sum, tmp;
00303   int i;
00304
00305   gft1 = (gsl_fit *)void_gsl_fit_struct1;
00306   gft2 = (gsl_fit *)void_gsl_fit_struct2;
00307   sum = 0.0;
00308   for (i=0; i<gft1->para.num; i++)
00309   {
00310     /*sum += fabs(gft1->para.par[i] - gft2->para.par[i]);*/
00311     tmp = (gft1->para.par[i] - gft2->para.par[i]);
00312     sum += tmp * tmp;
00313   }
00314   return sqrt(sum);
00315 }


 void siman_print ( void * void_gsl_fit_struct )

Parameters:
 void_gsl_fit_struct A void pointer, expected to be a gsl_fit
Returns:
Void.
Print to stdout the current parameter values. The printf statement adds columns to the output of the gsl_siman_solve routine. The n columns of the output are:
1: Number of iterations, i.e. number of times the temperature has been reduced.
2: Number of evaluations, equal to the number of iterations times the number trials at each temperature
3: The temperature
4 through n-1: The parameters
n: The energy


Definition at line 319 of file gsl_siman.c.

00320 {
00321   gsl_fit *gft;
00322   int i;
00323
00324   gft = (gsl_fit *)void_gsl_fit_struct;
00325
00326   for (i=0; i<gft->para.num; i++)
00327   {
00328     printf(" %10.5g ", gft->para.par[i]);
00329   }
00330   return;
00331 }


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