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 Home > Courses > 1P22_Crandles Electromagnetism, Optics, and Modern Physics Introduction Oscillations and waves Electrostatics Electric circuits Magnetism, induction and ac circuits Wave Optics Wave Vocabulary Travelling Waves transverse and longitudinal waves period, wavelength, velocity Interference: the fundamental difference between waves and particles interference: the principle of linear superpostion constructive versus destructive interference making standing waves making standing water waves standing waves on a string Diffraction: the bending of waves around obstacles/ apertures Intensity: Waves transport Energy Spatial Dependence of intensity from a point source Electromagnetic waves James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) Maxwell's equations: electricity & magnetism unified Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (1857-1894) and the observation of electromagnetic waves EM waves are produced by accelerating charge. Properties of electromagnetic waves oscillating transverse em fields Ex: Fizeau's measurement of the speed of light E and B are not independent,they are coupled em waves carry energy and momentum radiation pressure a comet's tail points away from the sun EM spectrum Optical Doppler Shift: Edwin Hubble spectroscopic lines Frequency shift is measure of galaxy velocity Hubble's law v=Hd and the age of the universe Penzias and Wilson discovered the Cosmic Microwave Background Microwave Background is doppler shifted em radiation from the big bang Two Slit Interference Interference Effects: single slits, pinholes, double slits Thomas Young, the mammalian eye, and the Rosetta Stone Coherence is necessary for observation of interference of light A single slit was necessary for observation of fringes bright and dark fringes: path difference two slit interference: equally spaced fringes Geometry of Young's double-slit experiment MC: two slit interference I Ex: two slit interference II Ex: two slit interference III MC: two slit interference IV Single Slit Diffraction Wider Central Maximum in single slit pattern Huygen's principle Single Slit Diffraction explained using Huygen's principle Ex: single slit pattern MC: single slit diffraction I MC: single slit diffraction II MC: single slit diffraction III Resolution Airy Disk and the Rayleigh Criterion effect of increasing diameter of lens or mirror low versus high resolution MC: What is the best telescope for this job? Ex: What can an astronaut see? Diffraction Gratings separates wavelengths of white light into rainbows Concentrate light into maxima Crystals are 3D diffraction gratings: X-ray diffraction from crystals Thin Film Interference phase changes upon reflection Newton's rings: set-up, side view, fringe pattern, detecting defects MC: A hanging soap film Ex: anti-reflection coating Ex: a thin air wedge Polarization of transverse waves Effect of a single polarizer Methods of polarization: by scattering or reflection by reflection and Brewster's angle by selective absorption Malus' law MC: two parallel polarizers MC: polarizers Ex: seven polarizers Ex: crossed polarizers Ex: polarizing sunglasses at a lakeside Quantum Physics